Origin- The origin of this referencing style is attributed to Edward Laurens Mark who was a professor of anatomy and renowned director at the zoological laboratory in Harvard University.
Academic honesty provides a greater emphasis on acknowledging and offering due recognition of works and ideas of others. Hence, in order to avoid plagiarism, it is significant to relate information for documentation purpose. False referencing also affect academic honesty where there exists no due recognition of works cited by any particular author.
Referencing- It can be denoted as comprehensive bibliographic description of something that one has gained information and knowledge from. References are cited within a sentence and then full acknowledgement of the source of reference is subsequently provided in order to acknowledge it. Whereas, bibliography is provided when any text is not referred to but acknowledged.
- Page numbers are aligned to the top right side corner of the page.
- The paper is required to be written by using the font style ‘Times New Roman’, font size 12 pt. with a line and paragraph spacing of 1.5 on a standard paper size of 8.5”x 11” having a margin of 1’ on all the sides. Alignment for the paper is required to be justified.
- The paper generally comprises of three parts namely, Title Page, Main Body and Reference List.
[Heading 1] is required to be bold and left aligned having a font size of 12 and font style ‘Times New Roman’. All words of this heading should be capitalized.
[Heading 2] follows the similar style as that of Heading 1.
[Heading 3] of this referencing style required to be left aligned and italic with a font size of 12 and font style of ‘Times New Roman’.
This list includes all the references that is cited in the assignment and requires to be alphabetically placed in a similar sequence. An annotated bibliography comprises of full reference of the sources along with summarized and additional notes depending on the assessed project. Certain considerations are required to be kept in mind while formulation of this list:
- This list is required to be attached at the end of the paper.
- Reference List is required to be Heading 1 and Unbold.
In-Text Reference Citation
The way of in-texting citation depends on a number of factors such as the sentence or paragraph, the style of writing and the sources to be referenced. The guideline provided below can assist in properly conducting references in any paper. There exists separate styles and guidelines in this referencing style:
In case of paraphrased part: McAllister (2015) states that…
In case of direct quotation: (McAllister, 2015)
Two or Three Authors:
In case of paraphrased part: Brebbia and Beriatos (2008) states that…
In case of direct quotation: (Brebbia and Beriatos, 2008)
Four or More Authors:
In case of paraphrased part: Heldman, et al., (2007) states that…
In case of direct quotation: (Heldman, et al., 2007)
Format of Reference List
Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Brebbia, C.A. and Beriatos, Ē. eds., 2008. Risk analysis VI: simulation and hazard mitigation. England: WIT Press.
- Edited Books
Author, Initials. Ed., Year. Title of the book. Edition. Place: Publisher.
Gotze, U., Northcott, D. and Schuster, P. eds., 2016. Investment appraisal. New York City: Springer.
- Online Newspaper Article
Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title of newspaper article. Name of the newspaper, [online] additional date. Available at: <url> [Accessed Date Month Year].
Ikeh, El-shaddai, 2015. Guide to derivatives as risk management mechanisms. The Guardian,[online] 26 October. Available at: < https://guardian.ng/features/guide-to-derivatives-as-risk-management-mechanisms/ > [Accessed 5 January 2018].
- Journal Articles
Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title of Journal. Name of Journal, Issue (Volume), pp. From-To.
Katkov, A. 2012. Great Recession of 2008-2009: Causes and Consequences. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 13(3), pp. 107.
- Online Article
Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title of article. [online] Name of web page. Available at: <url> [Accessed Date Month Year].
Coy, P., 2016. Where the next crisis will come from. [online] Where the next crisis will come from. Available at: < https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-20/where-the-next-crisis-will-come-from > [Accessed 5 January 2018].
- Online PDF
Surname of author(s), initial(s), Year. Title of article. [pdf] Available at: <url> [Accessed Date Month Year].
Dunkin’ Brands, 2015. 2015 annual report. [pdf] Available at: < https://files.shareholder.com/downloads/ABEA-68SCR9/0x0x883107/32BF1764-3E53-45CF-9824-D8753F797D37/DNKN_Annual_Report_Final_.PDF > [Accessed 5 January 2018].
**Online articles having no author require to be cited by using the name of the web page**