Chicago Referencing Formatting Style

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The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) comprises of two systems for the purpose of citation, namely, the notes and bibliography system and the author-date system. The CMOS generally follows the notes and bibliography (NB) system, however, in certain cases the CMOS follows the Author-Date system, as well. The contents of Author-Date System is similar to that of the NB System, with slight difference in the refencing style.

General Guideline

While writing papers using Chicago formatting and referencing style, the font style used should be Times New Roman or Courier, of the font size 12 points, written on a standard sized paper (8.5” x 11”) with a margin of 1” on all four sides and with a double line spacing. The page numbers of the paper should be positioned on the right hand top corner of the paper.

Papers written in the APA formatting style are divided into three major sections, namely, Title Page, Main Body and References. In cases where additional information is required to be provided, it is added under the section Appendix, which follows the References section.


Title Page
The Title Page either includes just the Title of the paper or could comprise of some additional information along with the title. The fundamental format of the Title Page is as follows:

  • The title should be Center aligned and positioned approximately one-third of the paper
  • Underneath the title should follow the Student Name, Class information and the Date
  • Double-space each line of the title page

 

Main Body
The paragraphs of the main body must be written with double-spacing. The paper begins with an overall introduction of the topic and the heading comprises of the topic of the study. The following is the general formatting of the body.


[Heading 1]

It should be middle aligned, bold using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. The first letter of each of the words must be in caps except for articles and conjunctions.


[Heading 2]

It should be centre aligned, regular font, using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. The first letter of each of the words must be in caps except for articles and conjunctions.


[Heading3]

It must be left aligned, bold using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. The first letter of each of the words must be capitalised except for articles and conjunctions.


[Heading 4]

Flush with Left margin, Regular font used, and sentence-style capitalization. The first letter of each of the words must be capitalised except for articles and conjunctions.


[Heading 5] . This should be at the beginning line of the paragraph (no blank line after heading), Bold or Italic font, sentence-style capitalization, and terminal period.


Basics of Referencing

Notes
Notes are to be used when the writer is referencing any ideas or text that did not come from his or her own mind. Footnotes are notes that are cited at the bottom—footer part—of the page. When a footnote is needed, the writer can add a citation in Microsoft Word. First, open the “References” tab and click the button, “Insert Footnote.” This makes a small number appear to the right of the sentence that is in need of a reference, and a corresponding number appears at the bottom of the page.


Bibliography

  • “Bibliography” is used as the title of the page and begins in a fresh page after the end of the entire work
  • Leave two blank lines between the “Bibliography” title and the first citation
  • Citations are single-spaced and are arranged alphabetically by the first word
  • The word “and,” not the “&” symbol, is used in CMOS citations
  • All author or editor names should be listed in the citation in the order the names appear on the title page of the source

 

How to Cite
The various sources that have been referred to while preparing the paper can be sourced in the paper in the following manner. The respective format to be provided as references can be demonstrated as follows.

 

 

Notes

Bibliography

Books

Single Author

1Terry Glavin, A Death Feast in Dimlahamid (Vancouver: New Star Books, 1990), 106.

Glavin, Terry. A Death Feast in Dimlahamid. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1990.

Two or Three Authors
In the bibliography, the first author is listed last name first, and the second author is listed first name first.

2Carole Shammas, Marylynn Salmon, and Michel Dahlin, Inheritance in America: From Colonial Times to the Present (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987), 97.

Shammas, Carole, Marylynn Salmon, and Michel Dahlin. Inheritance in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.

More Than Three Authors
In notes, only the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (et al. is a Latin abbreviation meaning “and others”). In the bibliography, all the authors’ names are listed.

3Alison Prentice et al., Canadian Women: A History (Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988), 121-23.

Prentice, Alison, Paula Bourne, Gail Cuthbert Brandt, Beth Light, Wendy Mitchinson, and Naomi Black. Canadian Women: A History. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988.

Journal Articles

Journal article in print
Journal citations should include the volume number as well as the issue number and month or season (if available). Put volume and issue numbers in Arabic numerals. Seasons are capitalized and spelled out in full. Months may be abbreviated or spelled out in full.

4Constance B. Backhouse, “Married Women’s Property Law in Nineteenth-Century Canada,” Law and History Review 6, no. 2 (Fall 1988): 233.

Backhouse, Constance B. “Married Women’s Property Law in Nineteenth-Century Canada.” Law and History Review 6, no. 2 (Fall 1988): 211-57.

Journal article from a library database – URLs
When citing a URL from a library database, do not use the URL from the browser’s address bar. Use a shortened, stable URL provided by the database (look for an icon or link called permalink, stable URL or persistent link).
If no stable URL or DOI is available, then include the database name (as in the second example).

5 Ethnohistory 50, no. 4 (2003): 587-610, Project Muse.
29James L. McClain, “Castle Towns and Daimyo Authority: Kanazawa in the Years 1583-1630,” Journal of Japanese Studies 6, no. 2 (Summer 1980): 269, http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.okanagan.bc.ca/stable/132323.
6Adele Perry, "From "the hot-bed of vice" to the "good and well-ordered Christian home": First Nations Housing and Reform in Nineteenth-Century British Columbia,"

McClain, James L. “Castle Towns and Daimyo Authority: Kanazawa in the Years 1583-1630.” Journal of Japanese Studies 6, no. 2 (Summer 1980): 267-99. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.okanagan.bc.ca/stable/132323.
Perry, Adele. "From "the hot-bed of vice" to the "good and well-ordered Christian home": First Nations Housing and Reform in Nineteenth-Century British Columbia." Ethnohistory 50, no. 4 (2003): 587-610. Project Muse.

Journal article from a library database – DOIs
A DOI is always preferable to a URL in a citation. If no DOI is available, use a stable URL.

7Gary Warrick, “European Infectious Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionontate (Huron-Petun),” World Archaeology 35, no. 2 (2003): 272, doi:10.1080/0043824032000111416.

Warrick, Gary. “European Infectious Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionontate (Huron-Petun).” World Archaeology 35, no. 2 (2003): 258-275. doi:10.1080/0043824032000111416.

Online news source

8“Vietnam-China row over South China Sea plane landing,” BBC News, January 6, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35216579.

“Vietnam-China row over South China Sea plane landing,” BBC News, January 6, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35216579.

Web Page - No Author
Cite individual web pages rather than entire websites.
Entries should include the following elements, where available: the title or a description of the web page, the author’s name, the owner or sponsor of the site, the URL, and the date. If there is no date, then include an access date.

9“Our History, Our Health,” First Nations Health Authority, accessed December 20, 2015, http://www.fnha.ca/wellness/our-history-our-health.

“Our History, Our Health.” First Nations Health Authority. Accessed December 20, 2015. http://www.fnha.ca/wellness/our-history-our-health.

Web Page – With Author

10Anthony S. Wohl, “Victorian Racism,” The Victorian Web, accessed January 20, 2016, http://www.victorianweb.org/history/race/rc5.html.

Wohl, Anthony S. “Victorian Racism.” The Victorian Web. Accessed January 20, 2016, http://www.victorianweb.org/history/race/rc5.html.

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